Scientifically speaking, a magnet is basically a material or object that produces a magnetic field. This magnetic field is invisible but is responsible for the most notable property of a magnet: a force that pulls on other ferromagnetic materials, such as iron, and attracts or repels other magnets. Continue reading for some mind-bending experiments that might surprise you.
5. Neodymium Magnet Meets Copper Pipe
A neodymium magnet (also known as NdFeB, NIB or Neo magnet), the most widely used type of rare-earth magnet, is a permanent magnet made from an alloy of neodymium, iron and boron to form the Nd2Fe14B tetragonal crystalline structure. Developed in 1982 by General Motors and Sumitomo Special Metals, neodymium magnets are the strongest type of permanent magnet commercially available.
4. Magnet vs. Computer
As of 2012, 50,000 tons of neodymium magnets are produced officially each year in China, and 80,000 tons in a “company-by-company” build-up done in 2013. China produces more than 95% of rare earth elements, and produces about 76% of the world’s total rare earth magnets.
3. Grand Illusions
Neodymium magnets are graded according to their maximum energy product, which relates to the magnetic flux output per unit volume. Higher values indicate stronger magnets and range from N35 up to N52. Letters following the grade indicate maximum operating temperatures (often the Curie temperature), which range from M (up to 100 degrees Celsius) to EH (200 degrees Celsius).
2. Magnetic Levitation
For successful levitation and control of all 6 axes (3 spatial and 3 rotational) a combination of permanent magnets and electromagnets or diamagnets or superconductors as well as attractive and repulsive fields can be used. From Earnshaw’s theorem at least one stable axis must be present for the system to levitate successfully, but the other axes can be stabilized using ferromagnetism.
Ferrofluids are colloidal liquids made of nanoscale ferromagnetic, or ferrimagnetic, particles suspended in a carrier fluid (usually an organic solvent or water). Each tiny particle is thoroughly coated with a surfactant to inhibit clumping. Large ferromagnetic particles can be ripped out of the homogeneous colloidal mixture, forming a separate clump of magnetic dust when exposed to strong magnetic fields.