Dry ice, sometimes referred to as “Cardice” or as “card ice”, is essentialy the solid form of carbon dioxide. It’s used primarily as a cooling agent due to its lower temperature than that of water ice and not leaving any residue. Continue reading to see five cool experiments that were captured on video.

5. Dry Ice vs. Liquid Nitrogen

Dry ice sublimates at −78.5 °C (−109.3 °F) at atmospheric pressure. This extreme cold makes the solid dangerous to handle without protection due to burns caused by freezing (frostbite). While generally not very toxic, the outgassing from it can cause hypercapnia due to buildup in confined locations.

4. Microwaving Dry Ice

Dry ice is the solid form of carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2), comprising two oxygen atoms bonded to a single carbon atom. It is colorless, with a sour zesty odor, non-flammable, and slightly acidic.

3. Burning Magnesium in Dry Ice

It is generally accepted that dry ice was first observed in 1834 by French chemist Charles Thilorier, who published the first account of the substance. In his experiments, he noted that when opening the lid of a large cylinder containing liquid carbon dioxide, most of the liquid CO2 quickly evaporated.

2. Dry Ice Swimming Pool

In 1924, Thomas B. Slate applied for a US patent to sell dry ice commercially. Subsequently, he became the first to make dry ice successful as an industry. In 1925, this solid form of CO2 was trademarked by the DryIce Corporation of America as “Dry ice”, thus leading to its common name. That same year the DryIce Co. sold the substance commercially for the first time; marketing it for refrigerating purposes.

1. Giant Bubble

Dry ice is easily manufactured. First, gases with a high concentration of carbon dioxide are produced. Such gases can be a byproduct of another process, such as producing ammonia from nitrogen and natural gas, or large-scale fermentation. Second, the carbon dioxide-rich gas is pressurized and refrigerated until it liquifies. Next, the pressure is reduced. When this occurs some liquid carbon dioxide vaporizes, causing a rapid lowering of temperature of the remaining liquid. As a result, the extreme cold causes the liquid to solidify into a snow-like consistency. Finally, the snow-like solid carbon dioxide is compressed into either small pellets or larger blocks of dry ice.