Japanese artist and musician Ei Wada specializes in repurposing old electronic appliances into musical instruments, whether it be 20 reel-to-reel tape recorders or this barcode project, which was created under that group’s umbrella in 2018. All of these are standard barcode scanners that have been modified to generate sounds by connecting scanned signals directly to the audio terminal to output sound. Read more for a video demonstration and additional information.
Think of the images as sound samples, and the scanners are the controls being used to play certain parts with various different settings. However, not all of the patterns you see are standard barcodes, but the boxes seen in the Electronicos Fantasticos video above includes what you find on product packaging as well as things other images, such as starbursts and low-contrast patterns.