Until scientists manage to build an artificial gravity generator for spacecraft, astronauts are prone to an array of eye / vision disorders in space. This is caused by the zero-gravity conditions of outer space, which cause body fluids to build in the head, thus putting pressure on the eyeballs and resulting in a condition called spaceflight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS). Read more to see how astronauts typically sleep aboard the ISS.
Back here on Earth, fluid pressure buildup around the brain when lying down drains after standing up, but that isn’t the case in space. So, University of Texas Southwest Medical Center scientists built a cone-like sleeping bag that fit around the waist and have a solid outer-frame, thus preventing body fluids from changing the shape of the astronauts’ eyeballs.
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We don’t know how bad the effects might be on a longer flight, like a two-year Mars operation. It would be a disaster if astronauts had such severe impairments that they couldn’t see what they’re doing and it compromised the mission,” said Benjamin Levine, professor of internal medicine at the University of Texas, and research lead, told the broadcaster.